The tissue microarrays were validated by using HE and IHC staining

The tissue microarrays were validated by using HE and IHC staining. in the TdIF1 signaling network by in silico analysis. Microarray, transcriptome and protein-level analyses validated p53 and HDAC1/2 modulation upon TdIF1 downregulation in an NSCLC cellular model. Moreover, several other cell cycle regulators were affected at the transcript level by TdIF1 silencing, including an increase in CDKN1A/p21 transcripts. Taken together, these results indicate that TdIF1 is a tumor-promoting factor in NSCLC and a potential target for therapy. Introduction Lung cancer is the most common cancer globally, after basal skin cancer, and the deadliest of human cancers. This is primarily due to its rapid progression into metastatic stage IV before detection, especially the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype.1 NSCLC accounts for 80C95% of all lung cancer prognoses.2 Current lung cancer treatments also face numerous challenges, including the complexity and diversity of lung cancer subtypes and a penchant for acquired resistance to therapy.3 This highlights the importance of identifying novel regulatory molecules in lung cancer progression to develop effective diagnostics and targeted therapy. The lack of targetable mutations in 50% of NSCLC also underscores the importance of the identification and validation of drugable targets.4 The identification of novel regulatory molecules in lung cancer progression (biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets) is therefore clinically relevant, allowing for novel diagnostics to be developed for early detection and for effective individual or combined targeted therapies. This strategy forms the foundation of personalized medicine, especially in the therapy of resistant subtypes of cancer.5,6 A first step is therefore to identify and validate novel molecules, or putative oncogenes, to investigate translational and clinical methodologies.7 Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-interacting factor 1 (TdIF1) is a ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein that is homologous to the transcription factor p65/NF-B.8 However, it has an unknown role in cancer progression. The two isoforms of TdIF (value ( 0.01) and fold change (2). IPA software (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software tool) was used to investigate gene regulatory networks and functional relevance for differentially expressed genes. The Ingenuity Pathways Knowledge Base information is extracted TG6-10-1 from public databases and reviewed publications and is an extensive, manually curated database of functional interactions.14 A one-sided Fisher’s exact test was performed to determine the significance of gene enrichment with a particular biologically relevant function. Tissue microarray construction NSCLC tumors and normal lung tissues were obtained from the National Human Genetic Resources Sharing Service Platform (Shanghai, China). A tissue microarray containing 82 paired NSCLC cancerous and normal lung tissues was used to construct tissue microarray slides (Shanghai Biochip Company, Ltd., Shanghai, China). Briefly, holes with 0.6-mm diameters were made to preserve the tissues of selected tumor and adjacent tissues in paraffin blocks. Serial sections (0.66?m) were cut from the arrayed paraffin block and placed onto glass slides. TG6-10-1 The tissue microarrays were validated by using HE and IHC staining. The histopathological categories of the non-small cell lung cancers were grade IICIII. The IHC staining intensities (0C3) and the antibody positive rate values (0C3) of nuclear TdIF1 were standardized and interpreted as follows: intensity scores were 0 points (negative) or 1C3 (1+ to 3+); antibody positive rate scores were either 0 (negative staining) or scored as 1 (1C25% stained), 2 (26C50%), 3 (51C75%) or TG6-10-1 4 (76C100%). The product of the intensity score and positive rate score was defined as the total score. Total scores were categorized into two groups based on a TG6-10-1 total score 4 as the antibody low expression group and 4 as the antibody high expression group. Statistics Data are presented as the mean??SD. Student’s values 0.05 were considered significant. Results TdIF1 is upregulated in lung cancer We first performed representational difference analysis with RNA-Seq information Rabbit Polyclonal to CLNS1A of 57 paired tissues (lung cancer tumor and adjacent normal tissue) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Significantly higher expression of TdIF1 was observed in NSCLC tumors than in adjacent lung noncancer tissues (Fig.?1a). We then examined the expression of TdIF1 TG6-10-1 in tumor tissues in NSCLC patients. The tissue microarray data showed that 54 of 82 lung cancers displayed high expression of TdIF1, whereas only 10 of 82.