Kundu JK, Surh YJ. least significant difference analysis. Results: Diabetes decreased learning and memory. Effect of CO extract in retention test (after 24 and 48 h) has been shown a significant decrease in step-through latency BAY 61-3606 dihydrochloride and increase in time spent in the dark compartment part. Also the extract partially improved hyperglycemia and reduced body weight. Conclusion: Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia. (CO) Linn (reduction of tumors), (reduction of swollen glands and lumps), (antipyretic), (wound healing). CO has been widely used in homeopathic medicine for the treatment of many diseases.7 It has been reported to possess effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,[7,17] antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, cytotoxic as well as tumor reducing the potential. Homeopathic calendula ointments are used in the healing stages of second and third degree burns to stimulate regrowth of skin and to diminish scar formation. It is also used in gastrointestinal, gynecological and eye diseases. The herb is rich in many pharmaceutical active ingredients such as auroxanthin, carotenoids, flavonoids, flavoxanthin, glycosides, triterpenoid esters, sterols, and steroids.[7,8,9,10,11,12,13] Although there are reports around the antidiabetic effect of CO,[20,21] to our best of knowledge, there is no report on its effect in cognitive impairment in diabetes. Thus, we seek to investigate the effect of CO hydroalcoholic extract on passive avoidance learning BAY 61-3606 dihydrochloride and memory (PAL). SUBJECTS AND METHODS Herb extraction aerial parts were collected in spring and identified at the Botanic Institute of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A voucher specimen was deposited in the Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, School of harmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. The dried aerial parts of the herb were ground to a fine powder. 200 g of the fine powder was macerated in ethanol 80% for 3 days. This process was repeated thrice. BAY 61-3606 dihydrochloride The resulting extract was filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness in a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure at a constant heat of 40C. The resulting extract was stored in a refrigerator. Animals Thirty-two male Wistar rats (250C280 g) were purchased from animal house, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. All animals were maintained at a constant heat (22 0.5C) with 12 h alternating light and dark cycles. They had free access to laboratory chow and tap water. Each experimental group consisted of 8 animals that were chosen randomly from different cages, and each rat was used only once. All research and animal care procedures were approved by the Veterinary Ethics Committee of the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and were performed in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for Care and use of Laboratory Animals (Publication number 85-23, revised 1985). Experimental design The animals were divided into two diabetic and two control groups (= 8 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) (60 mg/kg). Three days later, fasting blood glucose levels were decided. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein, and plasma glucose was measured using a glucometer. Animals were considered diabetic if plasma glucose levels exceeded 250 mg/dl. As soon as diabetes was confirmed, both diabetic and normal groups received saline or 300 mg/kg of the extract by oral gavage for 60 days. At the end of the experiment, all rats were weighed, and blood was collected for plasma glucose measurement. Passive avoidance learning The passive avoidance apparatus (shuttle box) consisted of illuminated and dark enclosures. The rat was placed in the illuminated enclosure facing away from the guillotine door, and 5 s later the door was raised. After the rat had joined the dark part, the door was closed, and a 50 Hz square wave, 1.2 mA constant current shock was applied for 1.5 s.[22,23,24,25,26,27] The rat was retained in the apparatus and received a foot shock each time it reentered the dark part. Training was terminated when the rat remained Rabbit Polyclonal to FZD4 in the illuminated enclosure for 120 consecutive s. Around the retention test that given 24 and 48 h after the acquisition trial, the rat was again placed into the illuminated part and step-through latency (STLr) latency and time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) were recorded as a measure.
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