c Scratch assays to measure cell migration. cancer cell lines. Summarizes assays carried out on cancer cell lines. Figure S8. Clinical characteristics of the patients included in the study Summarizes TCGA clinical data. (PDF 40809 kb) 12885_2018_5061_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (40M) GUID:?0E2DB23C-29B8-45D9-9FDD-E3BF4898E1F4 Data Availability StatementAll materials used in this study will be made available on request. The datasets analysed during the current study are available in the following repositories: RNA sequencing data and clinical information: Broad Institute TCGA GDAC Firehose on 08.08.2016, release version 2016_01_28. (https://portal.gdc.cancer.gov/) (http://firebrowse.org/). Patient follow up information: https://portal.gdc.cancer.gov/. RNA sequencing data from TCGA (version 8.0) KRT13 antibody (https://portal.gdc.cancer.gov/). Reverse phase protein array data from http://tcpaportal.org/tcpa/. REACTOME (http://reactome.org/). BIOCARTA (http://www.biocarta.com/), please note that the biocarta server is not available anymore. NCI (http://www.ndexbio.org/#/), KEGG (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) [26, 27], MSigDB (http://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/index.jsp). Molecular Signatures Database v5.2 (http://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb). Abstract Background Changes in cellular metabolism are now recognized as potential drivers of cancer development, rather than as secondary consequences of disease. Here, we explore the mechanism by which metabolic changes dependent on aldehyde dehydrogenase impact cancer development. Methods ALDH7A1 was identified as a potential cancer gene using a Drosophila in vivo metastasis model. The role of Rabacfosadine the human ortholog was examined Rabacfosadine using RNA interference in cell-based assays of cell migration and invasion. 1H-NMR metabolite profiling was used to identify metabolic changes in ALDH7A1-depleted cells. Publically available cancer gene expression data was interrogated to identify a gene-expression signature associated with depletion of ALDH7A1. Computational pathway and gene set enrichment analysis was used to identify signaling pathways and cellular processes that were correlated with reduced ALDH7A1 expression in cancer. A variety of statistical tests used to evaluate these analyses are described in detail in the methods section. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess ALDH7A1 expression in tissue samples from cancer patients. Results Depletion of ALDH7A1 increased cellular migration and invasiveness in vitroDepletion of ALDH7A1 led to reduced levels of metabolites identified as ligands for Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Analysis of publically available cancer gene expression data revealed that ALDH7A1 mRNA levels were reduced in many human cancers, and that this correlated with poor survival in kidney and liver cancer patients. Using pathway and gene set enrichment analysis, we establish a Rabacfosadine correlation between low ALDH7A1 levels, reduced PPAR signaling and reduced patient survival. Metabolic profiling showed that endogenous PPAR ligands were reduced in ALDH7A1-depleted cells. ALDH7A1-depletion led to reduced PPAR transcriptional activity. Treatment with a PPAR agonist restored normal cellular behavior. Low ALDH7A1 protein levels correlated with poor clinical outcome in hepatocellular and renal clear cell carcinoma patients. Conclusions We provide evidence that low ALDH7A1 expression is a useful prognostic marker of poor clinical outcome for hepatocellular and renal clear cell carcinomas and hypothesize that patients with low ALDH7A1 might benefit from therapeutic approaches addressing PPAR activity. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12885-018-5061-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Background A growing body of evidence links changes in metabolism to cancer [1, 2]. In addition to the well-known Rabacfosadine shift of cancer cells to aerobic glycolysis, mutations or changes in the expression of metabolic enzymes have been identified as potential cancer drivers. Mutations and/or altered expression of metabolic enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and isocitrate dehydrogenase are linked to tumor initiation, development and drug resistance [3C6]. Changes in metabolite levels can affect expression profiles, epigenetic marks and chromatin organization in cancer, with resulting changes in cellular phenotypes, metastatic potential, as well as on the tumor microenvironment . The human ALDH family comprises 19 enzymes that catalyze NAD(P)+?dependent oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids and NAD(P)H . Notably, ALDH1 is thought to be oncogenic in breast cancer. Cells with high ALDH1 activity have been linked to poor outcome in some cancers [9, 10], albeit not in others [11, 12]. Evidence of the roles of other ALDH isoforms in cancer remains equivocal. In this study, we provide evidence for a role of ALDH isoform 7A1 (ALDH7A1)?in human cancer, and link this to regulation of PPAR.
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