Low levels of sRAGE might be secondary to the underlying condition, i.e. calculated. Adjustments were performed with inflammatory and metabolic variables, s-creatinine, Ca2+ channel agonist 1 depression, smoking, physical inactivity, medication, and cardiovascular complications. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Results In this study 283 T1D patients (men 56%, 18C59?years) were included. One-hundred and thirty LLD users compared to 153 nonusers had lower levels of the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio (values ?0.043), were associated with AHD. Conclusions Higher sRAGE levels and lower EN-RAGE levels were linked to the use of LLD, whereas lower sRAGE levels were linked to the use of AHD. No other variables but the use of LLD and the use of AHD were linked to the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio. This may be of major importance as sRAGE is an inhibitor and EN-RAGE is usually a stimulator of inflammatory processes mediated by RAGE. test. Fishers Exact Test (two-tailed) was used to analyse categorical data, and data were presented as N (%). sRAGE, EN-RAGE, the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio, p-CRP, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and s-creatinine were log transformed. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed with EN-RAGE (Lg10), sRAGE (Lg10) and EN-RAGE/sRAGE (Lg10) as dependent variables. Variables with value cvalue ctest unless otherwise indicated. d Fishers exact test. Missing values (N): e 6; f 2; g, h 16 In Table?2, results from the biochemical analyses are compared between the users and the non-users of LLD, and between the users and the non-users of AHD. Rabbit polyclonal to Parp.Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), also designated PARP, is a nuclear DNA-bindingzinc finger protein that influences DNA repair, DNA replication, modulation of chromatin structure,and apoptosis. In response to genotoxic stress, PARP-1 catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose unitsfrom NAD(+) to a number of acceptor molecules including chromatin. PARP-1 recognizes DNAstrand interruptions and can complex with RNA and negatively regulate transcription. ActinomycinD- and etoposide-dependent induction of caspases mediates cleavage of PARP-1 into a p89fragment that traverses into the cytoplasm. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation from themitochondria to the nucleus is PARP-1-dependent and is necessary for PARP-1-dependent celldeath. PARP-1 deficiencies lead to chromosomal instability due to higher frequencies ofchromosome fusions and aneuploidy, suggesting that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation contributes to theefficient maintenance of genome integrity The users of LLD compared to the non-users of LLD had lower levels of the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio (value cvalue ctest unless indicated Missing values (N): d 18; e 14; f 22; g 109 h 12 The association with EN-RAGE (Lg10) used as the dependent variable was significant for p-CRP (B coefficient?=?0.190, values ?0.14). The associations with sRAGE used as the dependent variable were significant for AHD (Lg10) (inversely) (B coefficient?=???0.200, values ?0.24). The associations with the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio (Lg10) used as the dependent variable were significant for the use of AHD (B coefficient 0.187, values ?0.14). In Table?3 variables associated with the use of LLD are presented. In model 1, age (per year) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?1.12, 95% CI?=?1.08C1.16, valuevalue value valuevalue value em b /em /th /thead Age, per year1.08 (1.05C1.11) ? 0.0011.02 (0.98C1.06)0.441.01 (0.97C1.05)0.62Diabetes Ca2+ channel agonist 1 duration, per year1.08 (1.06C1.11) ? 0.0011.09 (1.06C1.12) ? 0.0011.08 (1.05C1.12) ?0.001Sex, women0.6 (0.3C1.0)0.0401.0 (0.4C2.2)0.950.9 (0.4C2.1)0.84EN-RAGE, Lg10, per unit0.7 (0.4C1.5)0.41CCCCsRAGE, Lg10, per unit0.4 (1.2C0.9)0.0180.2 (0.1C0.5)0.001CCEN-RAGE/sRAGE, Lg10, per unit1.5 (0.8C2.7)0.17CC1.7 (0.9C3.4)0.13CRP, Lg10, per unit1.1 (0.6C2.1)0.75CCCCHbA1c, per mmol/mol1.01 (1.00C1.03)0.130.99 (0.96C1.02)0.650.99 (0.96C1.02)0.58Total cholesterol, Lg10, per unit2.3 (0.1C41)0.58CCCCTriglycerides, Lg10, per unit4.5 (1.4C14.5)0.0117.2 (1.4C37)0.0195.9 (1.2C29)0.030LDL-cholesterol, per mmol/L1.1 (0.8C1.4)0.74CCCCHDL-cholesterol, Lg10, per unit0.7 (0.1C7.4)0.80CCCCS-creatinine, Lg10, per unit108 (5.9C2005)0.00252.1 (1.1C2386)0.04314.8 (0.3C636)0.16Abdominal obesity1.8 (1.0C3.5)0.0641.5 (0.6C3.6)0.411.2 (0.5C3.2)0.69Hypoglycemia, severe episodes0.4 (0.1C2.0)0.27CCCCSystolic BP, per mm Hg1.10 (1.07C1.13) ? 0.0011.07 (1.04C1.11) ? 0.0011.08 (1.05C1.12) ? 0.001Diastolic BP, per mm Hg1.06 (1.02C1.09)0.0031.01 (0.95C1.06)0.841.03 (0.97C1.08)0.36Depression1.2 (0.5C2.6)0.71CCCCSmoking0.5 (0.2C1.4)0.20CCCCPhysical inactivity0.8 (0.3C1.8)0.57CCCCContinuous subcutaneous insulin infusion0.8 (0.3C2.1)0.70CCCCLipid-lowering drugs3.2 (1.9C5.4) ? 0.0011.6 (0.8C3.3)0.161.7 (0.8C3.5)0.14Antidepressants1.6 (0.6C3.8)0.32CCCCCorticosteroids, nasal or inhaled1.4 (0.6C3.2)0.42CCCCCardiovascular complications5.4 (1.4C21.5)0.0164.1 (0.8C22)0.0972.4 (0.5C11.1)0.26 Open in a separate window a, b Multiple regression analyses (Backward: Wald): N?=?a 254/b 246; Nagelkerke R Square a 0.447/ Ca2+ channel agonist 1 a 0.392 Hosmer and Lemeshow Test a 0.845/b 0.708. For missing values, see Tables ?Tables11 and ?and22 In model 2, the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio (Lg10) (per unit) (AOR?=?1.7, 95% CI?=?0.9C3.4, em P /em ?=?0.13) was not associated with the use of AHD. Discussion The main findings of this study of 283 adult patients with T1D were that lower levels of EN-RAGE and higher levels of sRAGE were independently associated with the use of LLD, whereas lower levels of sRAGE were associated with the use of AHD. The use of LLD was associated with lower levels of the calculated EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio, whereas the use of AHD was associated with higher levels of the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio. No other variables were associated with the EN-RAGE/sRAGE ratio. sRAGE acts as a decoy for ligands, and.
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