Direct penetration may also occur in small ruminants that lack frontal sinuses because of improper dehorning procedures

Direct penetration may also occur in small ruminants that lack frontal sinuses because of improper dehorning procedures. of astrocytes. AstrogliosisReactive astrocytic response with increased number (variable), length, and complexity of cell processes. In the CNS, reparative processes after injury, such as inflammation and necrosis, are facilitated by astrogliosis. Axonopathy, distal of the CNS and PNSDegeneration of axons including distal portions of peripheral nerves and distal portions of long axons in the CNS (spinal cord). Axonopathy, distal, of the PNSA neuropathy with degeneration of the terminal and preterminal axon of peripheral nerves. AxonotmesisAxonal injury of a peripheral nerve in which there is degeneration of the part distal to the site of trauma, leaving the supporting framework intact and allowing for improved potential for regeneration and effective reinnervation. Blood-brain barrier of the CNSA barrier to free movement of certain substances from cerebral capillaries into CNS tissue. Relies on tight junctions between RO-9187 capillary endothelial cells and selective transport systems in these cells. Endothelial cell basement membrane and foot processes of astrocytes abutting the basement membrane may play a role in barrier function. Blood-CSF barrier of the CNSA barrier that consists of tight junctions located between epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the cells of the arachnoid membrane that respectively individual fenestrated blood vessels of the choroid plexus stroma and dura mater from your CSF. Blood-nerve barrierA barrier to free movement of certain substances from your blood to the endoneurium of peripheral nerves. Barrier properties are conferred by tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells of the endoneurium and between perineurial cells and selective transport systems in RO-9187 the endothelial cells. Brain edemaIncrease in tissue RO-9187 water within the brain that results in an increase in brain volume. The fluid may be present in the intracellular or extracellular compartments or both. The term also is used to include the accumulation of plasma, especially in association with severe injury to the vasculature. Brain swellingMarked, rapidly developing, sometimes unexplained increase in cerebral blood volume and brain volume because of relaxation (dilation) of the arterioles that occurs after brain injury. Bngner, cell bands ofA column of proliferating Schwann cells that forms within the space previously occupied by an axon following Wallerian degeneration. The proliferating column of cells is usually surrounded by the persisting basement membrane of the original Schwann cells. CAECaprine arthritis RO-9187 encephalitis. CCDCanine cognitive dysfunction. Central chromatolysisDissolution of cytoplasmic Nissl material (arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum and polysomes) in the central part of the neuronal cell body that results from injury to the neuron (often involving the axon). The cell body is swollen, and the nucleus frequently is usually displaced peripherally to the cell membrane. These structural changes functionally represent a response to injury that can be found (if the cell survives) by axonal regeneration with protein synthesis to produce components of the axon required for fast and slow axonal transport. CNSCentral nervous system. Cranium bifidumA dorsal midline cranial defect through which meninges alone or meninges and brain tissue may protrude into a sac (-cele), covered by skin. CSFCerebrospinal fluid. DemyelinationA disease process in which demyelination (destruction of the myelin sheath) is the main lesion, although some degree of axonal injury may occur. Primary demyelination is usually caused by injury to myelin sheaths and/or myelinating cells and their cell processes. Secondary demyelination occurs with axonal injury, as in Wallerian degeneration. DysraphismDysraphia, which literally means an abnormal seam, refers to a defective closure of the neural tube during development. This defect, which may occur H3F1K at any point along the neural tube, is usually exemplified by anencephaly, prosencephalic hypoplasia, cranium bifidum, spina bifida, and myeloschisis. EncephalitisInflammation of the brain. Encephalo-A combining form that refers to the brain. EncephalopathyA degenerative disease process of the brain. GanglionitisInflammation of peripheral (sensory or autonomic or both).